Saturday, March 28, 2020

Child abuse and legislation Essay Example

Child abuse and legislation Essay P4- Identify appropriate responses where child abuse is suspected or confirmed, making reference to current legislation and policies.M2- Justify appropriate responses where child abuse is suspected or confirmed, making reference to current legislation, policies and co-operation with a range of other professionals.There is a different procedure for reporting child abuse depending on whether it is only suspected, or if it is confirmed. This links to disclosure, which is split up into direct and indirect disclosure. Direct disclosure is a verbal exchange of information- when a child directly shares the information with you and says they are being abused. Indirect disclosure is when you observe behaviour or signs of abuse, or see a child acting out the abuse, or using inappropriate language that could suggest abuse is taking place.The flow chart below shows the referral process if you have concerns that a child is being abused. If direct disclosure has not taken place then it is importan t not to mention it to the child as this could not be the case, or if abuse is taking place and the case goes to court then it could be put in jeopardy as the child may repeat things you have said, rather than stating things in their own words for example. Instead it is necessary to record all kinds of information that may be relevant- pictures drawn, words said, observations seen, etc, to make up a clear account of the situation, and it is then necessary to discuss the situation with your line manager and then follow the referral process accordingly.(DfES. 2006. p.12).If a child discloses information to you then it is important to listen carefully to what the child is saying and to take everything that they say seriously. Allow the child to tell you about what has happened, without stopping them or asking for more details. You may repeat things that the child said in an enquiring tone, where you are not sure about something, but do not ask them any questions. (Flynn, H. et Al. 2004 . p.128). This is so that the child doesnt feel belittled or made to feel like a liar. It would have taken a child a long time to confront you and disclose the information as they thought they could trust you, therefore it is essential to retain this trust.It is necessary to listen carefully to try and remember as much information as possible and then as soon as the child has left it is essential to write down everything that you have been told, with the date and the time so that there is a written record while it is still fresh in your mind. It is not appropriate to take notes while the child is talking as it will make them feel like you are not listening properly, and it will make them feel like they do not have your full attention which they will need at that time. It is also necessary to stay calm and to let the child know they are doing the right thing by telling you. If you panic it will upset the child and may put them at further risk. It is also necessary to let the child kn ow that what has happened to them is not their fault, and that it has happened to other children before. This will help them to try and understand that they are not to blame, and to feel like they will survive it.Make sure that you let the child know what will happen now they have told you- the referral process- and it is important that you tell them you cant keep it a secret and you will have to tell somebody else what they have told you, irrelevant of whether they ask you not to, in order to help protect the child from further harm. It is important to keep the child fully informed about what you are doing and what is happening at every stage. (Tassoni, P. 2006. p.83). After having spoken to the child and recorded the information, it is necessary to discuss everything you have been told with your line manager and to follow the referral process. These responses come from guidelines and legislation such as the Children Act 1989 and 2004 as these state that it is a legal requirement t o keep children safe. For example they state, local authorities have a duty to investigate if they have reasonable cause to suspect that a child who lives, or is found, in their area is suffering, or is likely to suffer significant harm. (Section 47).The referral process is a set process which was laid down by the Local Child Safeguarding Board in conjunction with Every Child Matters and the What to do if youre worried a child is being abused report. It means that everyone who has concerns over a childs welfare can follow the same procedure so that everyone is treated fairly and rules and regulations are adhered to. Part of the referral process is an assessment and The Framework for the Assessment of Children in Need and their Families is a guidance document aimed at professionals and staff who will be involved in carrying out assessments on children and their familiesThe guidance is not a detailed manual, but provides a systematic framework for collecting information, involving the family and other agencies so that this information can be analysed and a clear plan of support produced. (Flynn, H. et Al. 2004. p.82). This framework helps to link agencies and professionals together to work together to protect children. Legislation also state the importance of working in conjunction with parents when reporting abuse and the need to let them know what is happening, how to support the child and rest of the family, and what should be done to protect the child if a parent is the known abuser. In these cases parental responsibility can be removed and the child can be put into the care of another relative, or of the local authorities in order to protect them if a Care Order is acquired.There is no single piece of legislation that covers child protection in the UK, but a variety of laws and policies that were passed as a result of child abuse cases, and the need to keep children safe. For example the Children Act was introduced partly as a result of the Denis ONeil case in 1945; Child Protection Teams were set up as a result of the Maria Colwell case in 1974; and more recently, the Every Child Matters legislation was set up as a result of the Victoria Climbie case in 2000. The Children Act was updated in 2004 as a result of the Every Child Matters legislation. This Act places a stronger duty on multi-disciplinary teams to work together to protect children these include local authorities, the police, early years workers, social services, the health service, and the youth justice system, etc.The Human Rights Act 1998 is linked to the implementation of no-smacking policies, etc, and the states that every child has the right not to suffer ill treatment or cruel, unusual punishment. (Flynn, H. et Al. 2004. p.41). The Data Protection Act 1998 refers to child protection cases that professionals should only disclose information about a child on a need-to-know basis. For example if a child discloses to their teacher that they are being abused, then the tea cher reports to the Child Protection officer of their manager, then it is not necessary that any other member of staff needs to know about the case at that time. As a result of the deaths of Jessica Chapman and Holly Wells in 2004 the Birchard Report was published and made recommendations about how information is shared and stored. All settings should have a child protection policy that incorporates information from many of the mentioned pieces of legislation and these should state who is the child protection officer in the setting, as well as detailing what action should be taken if you have concerns about a child in that specific setting.P6- Describe how an early years worker co-operates with a range of other agencies in cases of suspected or confirmed abuse.It is important that professionals and agencies co-operate and work together in child protection cases so that all the relevant, and correct information is available, and accurate in order to help and support the child. In rec ent cases, specifically that of Victoria Climbie, this was not done and therefore Victoria was put at further harm, and subsequently died when she could have been saved if the agencies had worked effectively and shared information. This is why the Every Child Matters legislation came about, to try and prevent this in the future. Children at risk need coordinated help from health, education, social services and other agencies, including youth justice services. These professionals are required to work together in order to protect the children and keep them safe, and to help bring to justice the perpetrators of crimes against children. As a result of Every Child Matters, now children known to more than one agency will have a single named professional to lead their case. (Flynn, H. et Al. 2004. p.244).If an early years worker suspects child abuse then they should report this to the child protection officer in their setting, and then the officer reports it to the local Social Services an d the process follows from there as to which professionals should be involved. However if the abuse is confirmed then the early years worker may be part of an investigation process, and it is essential that all records and observations be kept up-to-date and accurate in order to help the investigation. Social Services has lead responsibility for assessing children in need and their families, but they also work in partnership with other professionals, who contribute information to the assessment. (Flynn, H. et Al. 2004. p.83).All agencies and professionals that have a part in a child protection case should:* Be alert to potential indicators of abuse or neglect* Be alert to the risks that individual abusers, or potential abusers, may pose to children* Share and help to analyse information so that an informed assessment can be made of the childs needs and circumstances* Contribute to whatever actions are needed to safeguard the child and promote his or her welfare* Regularly review the outcomes for the child against specific shared objectives; and work cooperatively with parents unless this is inconsistent with the need to ensure that childs safety.Agencies and professionals need to think about the protection of the child in all cases, and this may mean thinking about what could have happened, rather than what they believe to have happened for instance if the social worker in the case feels there are serious child protection concerns about illness in a child being fabricated, whilst the GP thinks that this is only a minor problem of the mother being over-anxious. Both workers then become stuck in this position, to the detriment of the child. (Flynn, H. et Al. 2004. p.219). This was seen in the Jasmine Beckford case, as Social Services did not follow up concerns of her foster carers after she had spent time with her mother. Child protection conferences allow agencies and families to work together to exchange information, which is then formulated into a child prote ction or family support plan. (Flynn, H. et Al. 2004. p.219).M3- Explain the steps which have been taken to ensure that the chosen activity recognises and values different religions.Whenever a case of child abuse is examined and referred, it is done in line with Equal Opportunity policies and each process follows the same pattern irrespective of race or religion. It is necessary that early years workers are aware of different cultural customs and the terminology used. For example an African-Caribbean child may say that their mum beat them, which actually refers to a smack in British terminology. If the early years worker was not aware of this they may have serious concerns for the child and start the referral process for child abuse, but in the African-Caribbean culture it is common that parents beat children to discipline them. As well as understanding terminology, it is also necessary to ensure that families are treated with equal fairness, but by still supporting their individual needs. An example of this may be if the parents of a child do not speak English, or speak very little, then it would be necessary to get a translator when speaking with the parents regarding any child protection concerns, or by having written correspondence translated.This ensures that irrelevant of their native tongue they are still able to understand the child protection procedures in place. However this does not mean that they should be treated differently as a result of cultural or religious reasons, for example it would be inappropriate to show tokenistic gestures like a Social Worker turning up to the house of an Indian child with a curry. This is stereotypical and discriminatory. That said agencies and professionals should be aware of any beliefs as it may impact on the case if action cannot be taken due to beliefs. An example of this is if a Muslim child is abused then it would be inappropriate for Social Services and other agencies to send a male professional to the family home as it could impact on the case as the mother or any female relatives in the house may feel uneasy in his presence, and would therefore possibly not be as helpful than if a female went to the house. This is not the same as making allowances for the family; it is a case of supporting the family in the best way so that procedures can be carried out effectively. Another area that links to this is by agencies and professionals being aware of any religious dates or festivals that are important to the family, so that they can try to avoid visiting at these times if at all possible.It is also important not to assume that parents from a particular background are more or less likely to abuse their children than from any other parents. (Tassoni, P. 2006. p.95). Relating to this it is important not to assume that all parents who smack their children are abusers, as many parents, and many cultures, use this as a form of discipline. This relates to Victoria Climbies case as assumptions were made about Caribbean methods of discipline, suggesting they were more authoritarian, and some of these assumptions led to Victoria being ignored by the authorities. (Tassoni, P. 2006. p.96). Also in Victorias case it was assumed that because her social worker was black she would have greater knowledge of Victorias culture. This was, sadly, a grave misjudgement. (Flynn, H. et Al. 2004. p.21). In these circumstances and cases where professionals have concerns over a childs welfare, the Human Rights Act 1998 stipulates the basis on which governments can intervene in family life. (Flynn, H. et Al. 2004. p.48). It is also important that all agencies and professionals involved in a child protection case have a level of knowledge about different ethnic minorities, in order to best protect the children.

Saturday, March 7, 2020

Effective Customer Service Strategy Tourism Essays

Effective Customer Service Strategy Tourism Essays Effective Customer Service Strategy Tourism Essay Effective Customer Service Strategy Tourism Essay Over the last two decennaries, cultural touristry has moved from a niche market into the mainstream of the touristry industry being one of the fastest turning facets of touristry. Consisting a rich and diverse cultural heritage ensures universe s capacity to pull international cultural tourers, giving cultural touristry a competitory advantage in the extremely competitory touristry concern ( World Cultural Tourism Association web site, hypertext transfer protocol: // ) . Furthermore, non-traditional tourers are progressively demanding for service quality that is considered as value for money ( Sharpley and Forster, 2003 ) . Supplying service quality therefore will assist bettering satisfaction of visitants and this is believed to take to reiterate visits, positive word-of-mouth and increased international trial ( Ramsaran-Fowadar, 2007 ) . 1.2. Background of survey Increasing acknowledgment of the importance of heightening service quality in cultural heritage scenes appeared merely since the late 1990s witnessing a renewed involvement in travelers to rediscover the yesteryear ( Boyd and Timothy, 2003 ) . And, with 1 billion of international travelers expected in 2012, among the many motives for traveling, sing cultural sites and detecting new traditions and imposts rank high on traveler s list. Amidst cultural attractive forces, museums are considered to be the most popular attractive force, normally followed by art galleries and memorials ( McKercher, 2004 ) . For case, France started the operations every bit early as the 1950 s by incorporating originally independent museums, and today Louvre Museum in Paris is the most visited museum in the universe with 8,800,000 visitants in 2011 ( beginning: The Art Newspaper ) . Hence, in order to derive competitory advantage, museum service suppliers should concentrate on the ways to pull more cultural visitants by analyzing visitants perceptual experiences on the service quality provided at their attractive forces. In the national context, the Mauritanian touristry has now evolved into a genuinely planetary industry and is seeking ways to place its image as a cultural touristry finish contemplating its vision to pull two million tourers by the twelvemonth 2020. During the startup of the International Museum Day in May 2012 themed Museums in a changing World, New Challenges New Aspirations, the president of the Mauritius Museums Council, Goorah Beebeejaun said The 21st century is dedicated to the civilization. We have a new function to play.A We must introduce and make over constructs to advance our civilization, which is an unconventional instruction. Therefore, puting underscoring on the demand of analyzing the importance of efficient service quality bringing in museums in order to supply fulfilling experiences to visitants. 1.3. Research Problem An effectual client service scheme has the potency to better visitant dealingss to such an extent that it should take to betterments in the museum s repute and image, and more chances for growing through enhanced visitant and user satisfaction. However, clients may hold different values and different evidences for appraisal so they may comprehend the same service in different ways ( Edvardsson, 1996 ; Rowley, 1999 ) even if the service bringing procedure has been standardised. . This basically means using an evidence-based model, like SERQUAL to place exactly what each visitant group values, and so clearly pass oning this to all frontline employees. Hence, this thesis serves the intent of evaluate the service quality bringing procedure at LAventure du Sucre and its consequence on Customer Satisfaction. 1.4. Research Aims Adjacently, the survey aims at turn toing the undermentioned aims: To look into whether the quality of services provided meet the degree of visitant s outlooks // general outlooks prior visit to the sugar museum ; Measuring visitants perceptual experiences of quality of service experienced at LAS ; Identifying the characteristics of service that reveal the strong and weak countries ( spreads ) throughout the service bringing procedure utilizing the SERVQUAL theoretical account ; To find degree of client satisfaction achieved at the museum by carry oning a quantitative questionnaire study. 1.5. Chapter Breakdown To be more expressed and concise, the thesis comprises of interconnected chapters as outlined below: Chapter 1 is an overview on how bringing of quality services affects visitants experiences at museums, which are portion and package of cultural touristry both globally every bit good in the national context. Chapter 2 reviews the turning literature on service quality, understanding the importance of its execution in the service bringing procedure and how it relates to Customer Expectations, Perceptions and Satisfaction taking into consideration the construct of Museums as a service house and cultural attractive force. Chapter 3 gives a brief history of attractive forces, specifically museums in Mauritius in add-on to a background of the company and how it place and distinguish itself among its rivals staying to service quality committednesss at the top direction degree. Chapter 4 formulates the research methodological analysis sketching the research procedure carried out for roll uping informations on service quality bringing and client satisfaction at the museum in order to carry through the aims set out in the study. Chapter 5 presents the existent findings of the study conducted along with needed analysis. Chapter 6 offers appropriate suggestions and recommendations after analyzing the findings to react to existent demands and outlooks of visitants. Chapter 7 concludes the thesis by critically measuring the relationship between service quality bringing and client satisfaction and supplying an analytical grasp to dig into farther research on how to value the cardinal participants in service quality, that is the clients.

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Investment Plan Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Investment Plan - Assignment Example 2. Accounting Rate of Return: Accounting Rate of Return is based on accounting profit. Accounting Rate of Profit (ARR) can be defined as the percentage of Average Annual Profit of an Investment to the Average Investment. Where, Average Investment = (Initial investment + scrap value) / 2 Advantages: By using Profit figures, this technique relates to the return on capital employed directly. The result of this calculation is in percentage, which is easily understandable by most business people. Disadvantage: Here also it ignores the time value of money It uses the accounting profit rather than cash flows. Cash flows represent solid power over resources, whereas Accounting profits are subjected to the application of accounting concepts. 3. Net Present Value: It is a discounted cash flow method of investment appraisal. It uses the method of discounting future cash flows to its present values. The sum of the future cash flows less the initial investment gives the Net Present value of a Project. Advantages: Its main strength is its recognition of time value of money. As it considers cash flow for calculation, it is not affected by the accounting policy of a particular company. As it takes account of the costs of raising finance, a positive NPV reflects the increase in shareholders' wealth, which is supposed to be the main consideration of Project appraisal. Disadvantages: This is a bit cumbersome process of calculating the discount rate with the nature of finance available. It gives result in absolute figures, and does not allow for the size of the project. 4. Internal Rate of Return: Internal Rate of Return is the discount rate that gives a zero NPV....The sum of the future cash flows less the initial investment gives the Net Present value of a Project. 4. Internal Rate of Return: Internal Rate of Return is the discount rate that gives a zero NPV. The acceptance criteria of this method of appraisal are; IRR should be greater than the discount rate on the presumption that a project with higher IRR than the discount rate generates higher returns. Calculation of IRR is easier as it does not require precise cost of capital discount rate. To accept a project it is enough to see that the IRR sufficiently higher than the approximate cost of capital. To summerize complex accounting information into relatively small no. of key indicators ratios are used. This also makes comparison easier. As we are now going to make comparison between the performance of M/s Sukna and M/s Badra we should utilize the ratio analysis method. Traditionally ratios are classified into five groups. We should look into the ratios for which data is available with us. This is known as primary ratio as it goes to the heart of what most private sector firms try to achieve. This ratio gives the effectiveness of the assets financed both by shareholders and long term creditors. This ratio should be as high as possible. Gross Profit Margin = Gross Profit / Sales X 100%. This ratio does not give a clear picture but it can give some trend.

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

Human Resources and EEO Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Human Resources and EEO - Essay Example umb, scientific management allowed tasks and function to be broken down into specifics to clearly delineate duties for possible quantification and optimization of workers output. Process are now clearly defined as well as how to do it that does not leave any room for intuitive job functioning. Other theorists followed suit such as Maslow, Mayo, McGregor, Vroom and Herzberg venturing on other aspects of human resources such as motivation and efficiency on how could human resource do more and make them happy. Businesses realize that it is important for them to its human resource not only for them to commit and perform but also to keep them in the organisation. Keeping valuable employees motivated in an organisation is not only intended to make them commit and perform but also to keep them over the long haul because they are the organization’s most valuable asset(Guld, 2007). In sum, the following are the theorists who allowed human resource to evolve. Taylor first conceived the idea that workers are mainly motivated solely by wage. He posited that management has to possess the control and knowledge of the methods of production so that it would have a greater control of achieving efficiency in an organisation that includes motivating its workforce (Jaffe 2008). For Taylor, the breaking up functions into small quantifiable tasks is necessary to make the time-piece rate pay possible that will encourage employees to work harder if they can see that they are being paid with more work (Taylor 1911). This theory assumed that employees are more motivated with more pay and confined motivation to solely addressing the economic needs of a business organisation’s employees. Mayo expanded Taylor’s idea of motivating employees by including their social needs that also has to be satisfied while at work (Sarachek 1968). For Elton Mayo, employees are not only motivated by satifying their economic needs but also their needs to interact with fellow employees.

Monday, January 27, 2020

Potato Production and Marketing in Sri Lanka

Potato Production and Marketing in Sri Lanka Potato which conventionally grown through seed tubers, is an important crop in Sri Lanka for its high consumer preference and for high net profit. However, potato demands a heavy investment of about Rs.300, 000 per Hectare (Ha) during the cropping period in which seed material alone accounts for about 50-60% of the cost of production. Potato originated in Andes highlands in Peru and Europeans  [1]  and it was introduced to Sri Lanka in 1850s. At present potato is extensively cultivated in the district of Nuwara Eliya in two major seasons, Yala (Feb July) and Maha (Aug Dec.). It is also widely grown in Badulla District in paddy fields and high lands during Yala and Maha seasons respectively.. Jaffna and Puttlam are the other two districts where the potato is grown in lesser extent. Potato is the most popular crop of upcountry farmers due to its high net return.  [2]   Potato popularly known as The king of vegetables, has emerged as one of the most important food crop in Sri Lanka after rice, and few other crops like chilies, onion, maize etc.. Therefore, Potato production in Sri Lanka is largely for the local food market and vegetable basket in the country is incomplete without Potato. Because, the dry matter, edible energy and protein content of potato makes it nutritionally superior vegetable as well as staple food in our country. Hence, potato may prove to be a useful tool to achieve the nutritional security of the nations in the any country.  [3]   The production of particularly high value cash crops such as potatoes, chilies, and big onion, has been decreasing over the past decade. In addition, the cost of production of these crops is relatively high when compared to the other countries in the region. Local producers have had difficulty competing with imports of these commodities. This can be mainly attributed to the relaxation of import restrictions by the government in 1996. Farmers are now confronted with severe difficulties in marketing their products due to the availability of cheaper imports. Potato production has decreased from 88,709 MT in 2002 to 60,848 MT in 2009. Potato imports in 2009 were estimated at 99622 MT, which accounts for 80 per cent of the local requirement. More than 80 per cent of total imports are from India, China and Pakistan. Until 1996, potato remained a highly protected crop.  [4]  However, in recent years, the cost of production, estimated at around Rs 35.00 45.00 per kg, has remained extrem ely high and poor yield has eroded the profitability of this crop. Based on these economic scenarios of the potato production and marketing, this paper is trying to review and analysis of major characteristics, recent developments and changes of the potato production and marketing system in Sri Lanka. CHAPTER TWO METHODLOGY AIM This paper is trying to review and analysis of major characteristics, recent developments and changes (Opportunities and Challenges) of the potato production and marketing system in Sri Lanka. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Potatoes become leading and lagging sub farming sector of the economy. In recent years, Potato Crisis confront to the agricultural development scenario in Sri Lanka, are attributing the high incidence of farmers agitation, hunger strikes and many other forms of farmers demonstrations. A sharp decline of producer prices of potatoes, imports of potatoes and import liberalization, increased of cost of production and high prices of farm inputs, crop loss and market failures are the leading issues that encourage them to protest. Therefore, these empirical evidence reveals that there are some extents of the ailing features of crisis on the potato farming sector in Sri Lanka, and it can be concluded that the process of production and marketing of potato in farming sector is in wrong track. At presently, potato farming is struggling to rural adjust on economic, social and political reality. In the changing global economic scenario, they are now facing new challenges of improving the producti on of potatoes and finding new technologies at the farm level. The incidence of poverty and income inequalities in these communities has considerably widespread due to these reasons. RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS Since the imported potato is cheaper than the domestic potato, the local farmers are facing many difficulties when they try to market their products. GENERAL OBJECTIVE This research paper reviews and analysis of the major characteristics of the potato production and marketing system in Sri Lanka and, since the imported potato is cheaper than the domestic potato, its effects and impacts on local production. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES Specific Objectives of the research are as follows. a. To review and analyze the major characteristics of production and marketing of potatoes in Sri Lanka. b. To identify and examine the contributing factors of the process of production and marketing sector. c. To review the problems and constrains on the process of production and marketing. d. To make some suggestions for future development of the potato production in Sri Lanka. JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY Potato has been one of the leading cash crops grown in Sri Lanka and the annual production is average 76,000 metric tons. The land utilization of the potato cultivation is nearly 4500 hectare  [5]  . Further a crop of potato has high income capability and during the last decade it was identified that thousands of farmers became rich. Study on the review and analysis of the major characteristics, recent developments and changes of the potato production and marketing in Sri Lanka will be important for formulation and implementation of the policies and making decisions to up lift the dying potato cultivation in Sri Lanka. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Basically this research is based on the Case Study Approach. METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION Data has been collected through two sources as primary and secondary datas. Primary Data. The primary data has been collected by administering a questionnaire among the identified sample of 25 potato farmers and also by interviewing the potato farmers and distributors. Secondary Data. Secondary Data has been collected by examining documents and reports available at the Agricultural Department and Agricultural Library at Hector Kobbekaduwa Agrarian Research and Training Institute. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY Time allocation for the research was limited. Therefore, it has not been able to research all the subject areas as well as go into detailed study. The collection of data for the research was limited as the time duration for the research was limited. No field visits or other experiences carried out. CHAPTER THREE LITERATURE REVIEW HISTORY AND PRODUCTION TRENDS The successful cultivation of potatoes was first recorded in Sri Lanka in 1812, when it was introduced in Morawak Korale. Others like Abeyaratna (1985) contend that the potatoes were, probably, introduced by the Dutch who ruled the coastal areas from 1656 to 1792. Attempts at growing potatoes in the center of the present potato producing area were done by Samuel Baker around in 1850. However, it was only in 1909 that the local potatoes of Uruguay origin were grown at Hakgala Gardens. Later some British planters in the country at the time cultivated potatoes in their home gardens for their own use. Meanwhile the Department of Agriculture was concerned with potato cultivation for a considerable period (Mahakumbura, 1980).  [6]   In 1948, the Department of Agriculture began working on potatoes, devoting the first few years to investigating the cultivars suitable for growing, cultural practices, fertilizer applications and control of pests and diseases. The cultivation of potatoes on a large scale was started in 1951/52, but it failed due to various reasons. Cultivation was again attempted in 1957 in Badulla and Nuwara Eliya districts, but the farmers were not able to get a reasonable income because imported table stock potatoes were available in the local market at a very low price. When the government stopped the import of table stock potatoes in 1967 to encourage local production, the farmers once again started to cultivate this crop. This strategy was immediately successful and there was a rapid expansion of the acreage of potatoes. Production. The total extent of potato in Sri Lanka is 4,039Ha. In the central highland of Sri Lanka, potato is grown mainly in Nuwara Eliya and Badulla districts. The total extent cultivated under this crop in Nuwara Eliya and Badulla districts accounted for 725Ha and 3345Ha respectively (Department of Census and Statistics, 2009). The total potato production in 2009 amounted to 61705 Mt. Nuwara Eliya potato production was 12212 Mt and Badulla was 48,982 Mt and other districts recorded 511Mt to the total production  [7]  . Potato cultivation is an integral part of the up country vegetable farming system. It was continued as the most popular farming system in the up country area because of its high income generating potential. In general the potato production in up lands beings from the cultivation of imported seeds in up lands in the Maha season. The large part of the up land harvest is stored for 2.5-3 months and then planted in low lands followed by the rice crop. The most par t of the Yala harvest comes to the market at the early part of the next year. Seasons. In Nuwara Eliya, planting is done twice, once in the months of February to March which is harvested in June-July, and again in August to September to harvest in the months of January or February. In Badulla also potatoes are grown twice a year. The seeding is done in November-December is harvested in March-April, while the June-July planting is harvested in the month of October-November. In Jaffna and Puttalam, only one crop is grown which is sown in November-December and harvested in the month of March (Angammana, 1983). Seed Sources And Varieties. Annually, the Department of Agriculture of Sri Lanka imports 300-3500 tons of certified seed from European countries  [8]  . The certified seed has come from Holland, Germany, Denmark and Scotland in recent years. Normally the seed material is imported once a year. The varieties Desiree and Arka have been the most popular varieties of Nuwara Eliya, Badulla, and Jaffna farmers for the last few years. Because these varieties have generally provided good yields. Recently the variety Ishna was introduced in the Nuwara Eliya and Budulla districts where it has produced higher yields than Desiree and Arka. Production. During the last decade, the production of potato crop followed a volatile and declined trend in late 1990s. Period of 1980s to early 1990, potato production significantly increased. Post 1996, however, the domestic production of this crop began to decline as restrictions on imports were liberalized. A dramatic shift in area out of this crop primarily contributed to the production decline. Weather, poor storage conditions, diseases and availability of good seed are the major problems in potato production in Sri Lanka. Most of the growers in the up country depend on natural precipitation while growers in the coastal districts (Puttalam and Jaffna) use irrigation. If the rainfall in the up country fails, potato production in the other areas is affected because of the short supply of seed potatoes. The next major limitation is the poor storage facility on most farms where seed potatoes are kept in boxes in the farmers home. Storage. Many types of storage are used to store potatoes. The locally produced seed potatoes in Nuwara Eliya are stored in seed potato stores in Nuwara Eliya and Rahangala.. The stores in Nuwara Eliya can keep seed for a longer period of time compared with Rahangala because of climatic conditions. The seed purchased in June and July is stored in trays up to November-December and sent to the major potato producing areas such as Jaffna and. In Rahangala stores, seed potatoes are stored in bulk to a height of one meter but no forced ventilation is provided. Normally farmers store their seed potatoes in boxes and keep them in their homes where ventilation is very low, causing high temperatures and heavy loss in storage. POTATO CULTIVATION IN SRI LANKA Potatoes in Sri Lanka are mainly grown in three districts, namely Nuwara Eliya, Badulla, and Jaffna. However, there are namely areas that potato can be cultivated. Such as Puttalam, Kalpitiya, Rathnapura, Kandy etc. However, Due to many reasons cultivation are strictly limited to the above areas. Nuwara Eliya. The climate of Nuwara Eliya district is ideally suited for seed potato production. The peak periods of planting are during the months of August-September (Yala planting) and February-March (Maha planting). Planting cannot be done in May, June and July because of the heavy winds and rain. Similarly production in December and January is restricted because of the night frost in these two months. Badulla. In Badulla there are two planting seasons, one in the uplands in November-December (Maha planting) and the other in June-July (Yala planting) in the paddy fields of lowlands after the rice harvest. A large area is planted in the June-July planting. The farmers use only imported seed for the November-December planting and their own seed for June-July planting. Jaffna. In the existing climatic conditions in Jaffna, only one crop a year is possible. Potatoes are planted in November after heavy rains in October. Cool night temperature during December and January help in tuber initiation and formation, resulting in fairly high yields. The Jaffna farmers obtain their seed from the government farms and contract growers in Nuwara Eliya. Puttalam is another district having a similar climatic condition as Jaffna where the cultivation of potatoes has started recently. PRODUCTIONS AND ITS MAJOR CHARACTERISTICS The potato is an important commodity in the countries of South Asia. Because of the crops short vegetative cycle, the potato plays an important role in the regions food security. The potato in Asia and especially in the South Asia region has experienced the worlds highest annual growth rate in production over the past three decades.  [9]   Within global scenarios, the position on production and marketing of potato in Sri Lanka is somewhat different. During the last decade, the production of potato crop followed a volatile and declined trend in late 1990s. Period of 1980s to early 1990, potato production significantly increased. Post 1996, however, the domestic production of this crop began to decline as restrictions on imports were liberalized. A dramatic shift in area out of this crop primarily contributed to the production decline. The Figure: 1 has sufficiently explained the changes and fluctuations of land extent of potato from 1970 to year 2009 in Sri Lanka.  [10]   About 99 percent of the total land of potato cultivation are concentrated in two districts of Nuwara Eliya and Badulla . The highest amount of land of potato cultivation and lager number of farmers were in Budulla, while, more commercial oriented and lesser number of potato farmers were in Nuwara Eliya district. The distribution of land extent for potato crop growing in each district as shown in Figure: 3.It is obvious to note that the Potato cultivation in other areas in the country has strictly limited due to many reasons. However, there are many possibilities and potentialities for extended to this crop in other districts of the country. Production of potatoes is mainly depending on the extent of lands. Production trend of potato, during the last 39 years are evidently shown in the Figure: 2. Increase trend of production has commenced in 1978 and it had continued up to year in 1996. After that, production has widely fluctuated. Declined of land extent, changes of government policies, removing of import restrictions and imports of large quantities of potatoes, low farm gate prices are the key contribution factors for the stagnation and declining trend of production in recent pasts. Figure: 4. has provided the detail distribution of production quantities in each district of Nuwara Eliya and Badulla. According to Figure.4, in early 1990s, both districts were produced in similar amount of quantities of potatoes. After 1997, quantity produced in Badulla district had remarkably improved. Badulla is more than double that the potato produced in Nuwara Eliya distict, where production trend has declined in recent years. MARKETING SYSTEMS AND PRACTICES Assembling is the first step in marketing of farm products. It involves collection of small surpluses from number of small farms scattered over large areas and bulking the same for subsequent distribution in volume. The agencies engaged in the assembling of potato are as below: a. Producers b. Village Merchants c. Itinerant Merchants d. Wholesale Merchants e. Commission Agent f. Producers Co-operative Societies Major Assembling Markets. The major assembling markets are located in city of Nuwera Eliya, Badulla, Welimada and other few rural and urban centers of Kandapola, Ragala, Maturata, Kappetipola, Walapane and Mandaramnuwara. These key assembling markets in major producing areas send their collections to terminal wholesale markets of Colombo, Dambulla and Kandy while sending some stocks to other small regional markets. Distribution, Consumption and Marketing. After keeping their requirement of seed, the farmers sell the balance of the harvest immediately, either to the Marketing Department of Sri Lanka or to private dealers. Most farmers prefer to sell their produce to the private dealers as they pay a higher price. The price of potatoes fluctuates widely throughout the year. Because of the coincidence of harvest in Jaffna, Puttalam and Badulla in January, February and March, there is a drop in the price during these months. Marketing Costs and Margins. Marketing costs are the actual expenses required for bringing potato from farm gate to the consumers. It includes the following: Handling charges at local points Assembling charges Transportation costs Handling charges by wholesalers and retailer to consumers Expenses on secondary services like financing, risk taking and market Intelligence Profit margins taken out by different agencies. The marketing margins of potato are the difference between the actual price paid by the consumer and the price received by farmer for an equivalent quantity and quality of potato. Imports of Potatoes. It is leading question for the farmers, while it is leading solution for the consumers. The Table 1 has shown the potato imports in Sri Lanka, from 1994 to year 2009. The quantity of imports, during the last 30 years had increased considerably. However, imports have rapidly increased the period of last ten years in 1997 to 2007  [11]  . This was mainly due to the removing of import restriction of potatoes, under the liberalization of agricultural markets. Further, the value of the imports and unit prices of potatoes (CIF) has significantly increased, while, the rising trend of quantities, CIF prices and total vales are continued in past few years. Therefore, an increasing trend of all these import variables is key dilemma of the local potato production and marketing system. Prices, Price trends and Developments. The prices of potato are the key issue in the system of production and marketing. The three levels in producer prices, wholesale prices and retail prices are most influential matter for the farmers, traders and consumers. The general trend of prices has shown that the prices have gone up, with extensively fluctuations by weekly, monthly and annually. The rising tendency of wholesale and retail prices is the most common features of the marketing system. The Figure: 6 and 7 adequately gives details on the behavior and patterns of the average wholesale and retail prices of potato in Colombo and suburbs markets in last 12 years. CHAPTER FOUR results and Analysis This chapter includes presentation and analysis of research data in an empirical way in order to enhance the quality of the research report. Both primary and secondary data were used for the analysis and presentation. ANALYSIS OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE Question 01 Figure 5.1 As per the Figure 5.1, 52% of the respondents are strongly disagree with the statement that the government support is satisfactory for the potato cultivation while 40% are disagree with the statement. Question 02 Figure 5.2 72% of the participants do not believe that the potato will become one of the main crops in Sri Lanka in near future. Question 03 Figure 5.3 As per Figure 5.3, most of the respondents do not like importing potatoes from other countries. Question 04 Figure 5.4 According to the graph above, 24 respondents out of 25 are not satisfied with the support given by the whole sellers and the intermediates. Question 05 Figure 5.5 88 % of the respondents say that the research and development facilities should be improved for the development of potato production in Sri Lanka. Question 06 Figure 5.6 60 % of the respondents have strongly stated that they are not satisfied with the profit they gain by the potato cultivation, while another 36 % of the respondents are also disagree with the statement. Only 04 % of the respondents are satisfied with the income they gain. Question 07 Figure 5.7 All respondents say that they face many difficulties at the marketing stage (17 respondents out of 25 are strongly agree with the statement while other 08 are also agree with the statement.) Question 08 Figure 5.8 As per the above Figure, 96 % of the respondents do not agree with the statement that quality of the imported potatoes is better than Sri Lankan potatoes. Question 09 Figure 5.9 22 respondents out of 25 do not believe that the customers are willing to buy imported potatoes rather than buying Sri Lankan potatoes and only 03 respondents are agree with the statement. Question 10 Figure 5.10 All 25 respondents are strongly agreed that the high cost of cultivation is the main reason for decreasing the potato production in Sri Lanka. SWOT ANALYSIS FOR THE PRODUCTION AND MARKETING SYSTEM IN SRI LANKA In addition to the analyzing of both primary and secondary data as mentioned in above, a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis was carried out to address the weaknesses and to arrest the treats in view of eliminating the stagnation in potato production and marketing in Sri Lanka and following are found. Strengths at Glance on Potato Production and Marketing System. Production possibilities and potentialities are tremendous in the country. Production directly effects on the increase of farmers incomes Reduction of imports on potato leads to favorable situation on balance of payments and may increasing the trend of production. An increase of production has reduces the level of malnutrition. Potential benefits and advantageous are very huge in many. Existing institutions mechanisms can be used for improvements. Potato farmers are organized, targets oriented and group specifics. Low dependency of international markets increased the food security. Small farmers income may increase and the marketing system may also improve. Weaknesses at Glance on Potato Production And Marketing System. There are no comparative advantages for potato production Low production and productivity are discouraged the farming system. Lands and soil degradation are leading factors for the decisions. Substantial importations of potato are reducing the farm incomes. Government has not clear policy for the imports of potatoes High Cost of Production are discouraged the farmers. There are wide gap between potential level and farmer yields Unavailability of quality seeds is major troubles. Lack of allocation for research and extension services Post-harvest loss is high and no proper storage facilities. Higher marketing cost has reduced the share of farmers incomes. Fluctuation of production and prices collapse the marketing system Farmers infrastructure facilities are need to be improved, farms roads etc. Threats at Glance on Potato Production And Marketing System. Inadequate availability of high yielding varieties is major threats. Inadequate technology transfer at village level farms. Poor soil fertility management has reduced the productivity. A high incidence of pest diseases has increase the risk of crop. Insufficient farm mechanization has reduced farming efficiency. Lacks of farmer group activities have reduced strengthen of farming communities. Due to the Poor and lack of processing facilities and agro- based industries, farmers have no alternative choices to sales. Land extent is highly responsive for quantity of imports. Liberalization trade has reduced the speed of growth. Potato production would be disappear, due to the economic globalizations Changes of tariff (duty) rates decrease the stability of production Inconsistency of the government policies reduces the efficiency of production marketing, while increasing risk of investment. Opportunities At Glance on Potato Production And Marketing System. Potentiality of the use of modern crop technology (Research and Development) is high for potatoes and there are more possibilities to minimize post-harvest losses There are more possibilities to increase of value added products Potato is an instrument for the transformation of the farmers from subsistence to commercial level farming. Abilities of poverty alleviation and capability of the earring higher incomes of the potato production is very high. Potato is an essential food items in normal Sri Lankan diets and the demand and per capita consumption can be improved. Being a short duration crop, it produces more quantity of dry matter, edible energy and edible protein in lesser duration of time than cereals like rice/ wheat Potato may prove to be a useful tool to achieve the nutritional security with the food security of the nations. Production can be self-sufficient in terms of local requirements. 6. As per the data analyzed above, the hypothesis which is stated in Chapter Two is proven and acceptable. It is now proven that since the imported potatoes are cheaper than the domestic potato, the local farmers are facing many difficulties when they try to market their products. CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION This chapter is the most important part of the research since this chapter consists with the conclusion on research findings and recommendations for future researches. The main objective of this chapter is to present the results based on research finding. In conclusion, it is better to look back the objectives stated in the first chapter and determine whether this research has met its objectives. At the final stage of this research study, I would like to sum up my conclusion stating that the research has met all its objectives to a greater extent. In general, the conclusion of this paper is neither particularly optimistic nor particularly pessimistic. During the research, it was found that there are many obstacles and problems, but also many opportunities and potentialities in improving the production and marketing of potatoes in Sri Lanka. The key problem is that the imported potatoes are cheaper than the domestic potatoes and local consumers reportedly prefer the potatoes grown in upcountry areas. Since quantities of local production and prices of potatoes; specially, farm gate, wholesale and retail prices, are highly fluctuating within a year frequently and it is highly depend on these cheaper import prices and the import quantities. Hence there is a huge impact on the local production and marketing system by the imported potatoes. In the process of interviewing potato farmers during the research study, it was highlighted that there are some economic and political impacts also for the potato production and marketing of Sri Lanka. During the research, it was found that the quality of the imported potatoes is lesser than the domestic production. Hence most of the consumers are not willing to buy imported potatoes and they have the preference on the local production. But due to lesser supply of local production consumers are compelled to buy imported potatoes. This has been proved in figure 4.8 and figure 4.9. Further it could be seen that the research development facilities should be improved for the development of potato production in Sri Lanka and it is proved in figure 4.5 in chapter 04. As per the figure 4.10, high cost of cultivation is the main reason for decreasing the potato production in Sri Lanka. MARKETING CONSTRAINTS It was highlighted that the local farmers face many difficulties at the marketing stage and it is stated in figure 4.7 in Chapter Four. Following are the main marketing constraints faced by the local farmers. High Marketing Costs Margins. Transaction cost of marketing is high. There is a need for promoting producers cooperativeness and some other trader organizations in potato growing areas to reduce the price gap between growers and consumers. As per the figure 4.4, a minimum support is given to farmers by the whole sellers and the intermediates. Wide Price Fluctuations. The major potato growing areas should arrange advance forecasting of area under potato and plan to divert the potatoes to the deficient areas or consumers areas by sending to avoid glut situations and price crashes in the markets. Bottlenecks in Storage Facilities. There are no cold storages facilities in the country used for potato storage and

Sunday, January 19, 2020

Network Security Essay

Firewall:- A firewall is a software program or a piece of information that help screen out hackers, virus, worms and Trojan horse that try to reach to your computer over the internet. If you use a computer at home the most efficient and important step to help your computer to protect by turning on your firewall. If you have a more than one computer connects in home. It is important to protect every computer. You should have a hardware firewall (such as router) to protect your network, but you should also use software firewall on each computer to prevent the spread of virus your network. If your computer is a part of business, you should follow the policy established by network administrator. How it works:- When your firewall protection is turned on, everything that goes in and out of the network is monitored. The firewall monitors allows ‘good data’ in and block ‘bad data’ from entering your network. Firewall uses one or combination of the following method to control the traffic in and of the network:- 1) Packet filtering:- The most basic form of firewall software uses pre-determined rules to create different filters. If an incoming packet of data (small chunk of data) is flagged by the filters, it is not allowed through. Packets that make it through the filters are sent to requesting system and all others are discarded. 2) Proxy services:- A proxy service is an application that acts as an intermediary between systems. Information from the internet is received by the firewall and sent to the requesting system and vice versa.   Proxy server operates at the application layer of firewall, where both ends of the connection are forced to conduct session through the proxy. They operate by creating and running a process on the firewall that mirrors a service as if it were running on the host end, and thus centralize all the information transfer to the firewall for scanning. 3) Stateful inspection:- The most modern method of firewall scanning that does not rely on memory intensive examination is ‘Stateful inspection’. A Stateful firewall  holds significant attributes of each connection of trusted information for the duration of session. These attributes which are collectively known as state of the connection may include ip addresses, ports involved in the network and number of packets being transferred. Types:- There are two types of firewall that are as follows:- Hardware firewall. Software firewall. 1) Hardware firewall:- Hardware firewall built into the device such as routers and can protect every single machine on a network and require little configuration for efficient work. They mostly use packet filtering technique to examine the header of the packet, determining source and destination, then comparing the data to a set of predefine rules, they decide whether to ignore the packet or forward to the next step or to its final destination. 2) Software firewall:- Software firewalls are the most popular protection method for home users. They usually come as standalone applications or as a part of complete antivirus protection software. That is why it is mostly used in personal network. Antivirus such as bull guard provides besides providing protection for inbound and outbound traffic. A software firewall also protects against worms and Trojan horses. The software firewall must be regularly protected to keep up the latest technology updates and provides effective protection. NOTE:- Each type has advantages and disadvantages, ranging from ease of implementation to high initial cost. Companies should use the firewall as part of overall information security program that includes data integrity, application integrity and data confidentiality and authentication.

Saturday, January 11, 2020

Juvenile Correctional Officers Essay

When a person is charged for a crime that was committed and is sentenced to serve time in a facility, a correctional officer is responsible for the supervision and safety of the detainee. Correctional officers work in adult and juvenile detention centers, though in each facility their responsibilities differ pertaining to whether the detainee is an adult or a juvenile. Because of the ages of the detainees a correctional officer at a juvenile detention facility are greater than if they were dealing with adults. To understand what the differences are in regards to a juvenile, one must know, child development, punishment, and deterrence play a part in the unique situations pertaining to a juvenile detainee. Every child that commit’s a crime has their very own unique situation behind the crime. Some children were taught the crimes they commit by a trusted adult, or television. Some may have an underlying mental or psychological defect that brought them to commit the crime. There are also situations where a child was neglected, abandoned, or abused by an adult they cared about, thus bringing violence among the child. A child’s development can play a very important role in corrections. There may be a violent child that may need to be restrained or put in separate quarters to protect themselves as well as other detainees from harm. A child may also need to be medicated because of an underlying condition or disease. All of these factors can not only affect how a child is taken care of in a facility, but also before that when they are arrested and tried. All of the above factors can either help or hurt a child. If there is no proof of abuse or an mental condition, the courts may be less lenient on their charge and sentence, then a troubled child with underlying factors, in which a judge may take those factors into consideration and gives a lesser charge, House them in a mental facility instead, or provide extra programs or services to help the child once detained. Through punishment a court can show the juvenile what happens if they commit a crime and keep them off the street and from the community by taking away their freedom. Most juveniles are punished by a fine, community service, probation, home electronic monitoring, or incarceration in a juvenile detention center. While there they will be under close supervision of correctional officers and therapists in some facilities. There are occasions for serious crimes that a judge will sentence a juvenile to an adult detention center if they have been tried as an adult. The juveniles that are occasionally tried as adults are ones that commit crimes such as manslaughter, sex crimes, or murder. While a juvenile is in a detention center, they can have visitors as long as it is an immediate family member and this is usually on certain days. In some facilities, recreation, religious, and educational programs are given while they are detained as well. â€Å"Increased punishment of juveniles reduces the amount of crime they commit in a way similar to the impact punishment has for adults, according to a new paper by Steven Levitt, Associate Professor of Economics at the University of Chicagoâ€Å". â€Å"The evidence suggests that juvenile crime is responsive to harsher sanctions,† Levitt writes. â€Å"The estimated decrease in crime associated with incarcerating an additional juvenile is at least as large as the corresponding reduction in crime for adult offenders†, (Levitt, S, 1998). â€Å"In an effort to strengthen the sanctions for serious juvenile crimes, a number of states have enacted laws increasing the types of offenders and offenses eligible for transfer from the juvenile court to the adult criminal court for trial and potential sentencing†, (Redding, R, 2010). These laws are created to try and set precedent to deter juveniles from following certain crime trends and teach them what is in store for them if they do offend. Deterrence has became a popular practice in the criminal justice system. With success of a deterrence, jails and detention centers do not get overcrowded, and more money of the individual states can go to fund therapeutic programs and services to assist troubled individuals. In some instances, a juvenile can be given an opportunity to make heir offense right by attending therapy and psychological meetings, thus helping them cope with whatever issues they may have. This can aid in deterring the individual from committing a crime. Juveniles are our future and it is the responsibility of us adults to help them grow up into fine law abiding individuals and not into a life of crime. To help adults teach juveniles they , must know the juvenile corrections department and educate their children. Knowing how a child develops, how punishment can help, and ways to deter the juvenile are good practices for any parent and adult to learn. For us to safely say we raised our kids right, we must keep the world free of crime and full of love. Resources Redding, Richard, Juvenile Justice Bulletin, US Dept of Justice, Juvenile Transfer Laws, 2010, Right Margin Steven Levitt, Associate Professor of Economics at the University of Chicago, Juvenile Delinquents, University of Chicago News Office, December 21, 1998, Para. 1.